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Extracellular vesicles are the core of Cellarcus’ work. Our labs are equipped with specialized instrumentation and dedicated personnel for EV research. Our expertise is here for your pivotal studies.

Vesicle Sample Graphic

Sample requirements and recommendations

General requirements

vFC™ analysis generally requires 100 ul of sample at an EV concentration of 1×107 EVs/uL. This will allow NTA analysis and limited titration in duplicate for initial vFC™ analysis. Once conditions are optimized, smaller volumes will suffice.

Specific recommendations

Purified EVs: vFC™ analysis is compatible with any of the popular EV enrichment methods, including ultracentrifugation, density gradient ultracentrifugation, polymer precipitation, filter binding, or filtration. A minimum volume of 100 uL at an EV concentration of 1 x 107 vesicles/uL or greater. If the EV concentration is not known, a dilution series will define concentration, limit of detection, and dynamic range of the analysis.
Culture media: EVs can be detected directly in serum-free culture supernatants, though EV concentrations are often too low. In general, it is recommended to concentrate culture supernatants 50-100x using centrifugal ultrafiltration (eg Amicon 100K MWCO centrifugal filter) or one of the other enrichment methods.
Plasma: Spin citrated blood at 2500 x g for 10 minutes to remove cells and large debris. Aspirate the supernatant and transfer to a new tube and repeat the spin. Aliquot the cell-free supernatant and freeze at -80°C. Plasma EV concentrations are in the range of 108-109 vesicles/uL, so aliquots of 25 uL generally suffice.
Cerebrospinal fluid: Spin CSF at 2500 x g for 10 minutes for cell and debris removal. Next, transfer the supernatant to a new tube and repeat. Aliquot the cell-free supernatant and freeze at -80°C. CSF EV concentrations are in the range of 105-106 vesicles/uL, so aliquots of at least 100 uL are required.
Other biofluids: Recommendations under development.

Data Produced by VFC Analysis

Vesicle concentration: in units of vesicles/uL
Vesicle population size distribution: estimated using well-characterized synthetic vesicles as reference particles
Vesicle surface protein frequency: percent positive above threshold level of detection
Vesicle surface protein abundance: in units of mean equivalent soluble fluorochromes (MESF) or estimated antibodies bound per vesicle (ABV)

vFC™ Staining of vesicles from cells with established markers. (a) Liposomee standard without surface marker expression, (b) Plot of PE intensity vs vesicle size for vesicles from frst cell type shows positive shift for known marker of cell type I and no signal for cell type II marker, (c) Plot of PE intensity vs vesicle size for vesicles from cell type II show positivity for cell type II marer with no signal for cell type I marker.

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